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Metal

                                                    METAL

Our company BalMet Trade OU is engaged in the wholesale supply of ferrous and non-ferrous metals from Russia and the CIS countries for European consumers. Our company supplies high-quality alloys based on aluminum, lead, tin, copper and other metals.

Aluminum and aluminum alloys

(Al, lat. Aluminum) – an element of the 13th group of the periodic table of chemical elements, the third period, with atomic number 13. It belongs to the group of light metals. The most common metal and the third most abundant chemical element in the earth’s crust (after oxygen and silicon).

Simple substance aluminum is a lightweight paramagnetic metal of silver-white color, easily amenable to molding, casting, machining. Aluminum has a high thermal and electrical conductivity, resistance to corrosion due to the rapid formation of strong oxide films that protect the surface from further interaction.

Aluminum was first produced by Danish physicist Hans Oersted in 1825 by the action of potassium amalgam on aluminum chloride followed by distillation of mercury.

The name of the element is derived from lat. alumen – alum.

Before the development of an industrial electrolytic method for producing aluminum, this metal was more expensive than gold. In 1889, the British, wishing to honor the rich gift of the great Russian chemist DI Mendeleev, presented him with an analytical balance in which the cups were made of gold and aluminum.

In terms of prevalence in the earth’s crust, it takes the 1st place among metals and the 3rd place among elements, second only to oxygen and silicon. The mass concentration of aluminum in the Earth’s crust, according to various researchers, is estimated from 7.45 to 8.14%.

Our company supplies Aluminum alloys – alloys, the main mass of which is aluminum. The most common alloying elements in the composition of aluminum alloys are: copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon and zinc. Less commonly – zirconium, lithium, beryllium, titanium. Basically, aluminum alloys can be divided into two main groups: cast alloys and wrought (structural). In turn, structural alloys are divided into thermally treated and thermally unprocessed. Most of the alloys produced are deformable, which are intended for subsequent forging and stamping.

Aluminum alloys are produced according to:

GOST 1583-93 Foundry aluminum alloys. Technical conditions. Secondary aluminum in foundry alloys AK7, AK9, AK12, AK5M2, AK9M2, AK12M2. Casting alloys allow an increased content of impurities, such as iron, as compared to wrought alloys. Therefore, secondary aluminum is widely used in the preparation of cast alloys.

GOST 4784-97 Aluminum wrought aluminum alloys. Stamps Secondary aluminum in wrought alloys AD1 and AD31 is produced according to GOST 4784-97. In these alloys, the content of impurities, including iron, is significantly lower than, say, in casting alloys. Therefore, preparing them from recycled aluminum is a more difficult task.

GOST 295-98 Aluminum for deoxidation, production of ferroalloys and aluminothermy. Technical conditions. GOST 295-98 directly indicates the use of recycled aluminum. There are only three alloys in this standard – АВ97, АВ91 and АВ87. The numbers indicate the minimum content in the alloy of the total amount of aluminum and magnesium.

There is also UNS [en] marking and an international standard for aluminum alloys, and their marking ISO R209 b.

Product description

An aluminum ingot (ingot, bar, plate) is a metal casting with a trapezoidal cross-section, intended for further melting. In the pigs supplied high-purity aluminum or technological. The main application of aluminum ingots is metallurgy. Of them are made as “semi-finished products” (rods, circles, sheets, plates, etc.), and final products (parts for equipment, connections for domestic needs, construction for construction). In addition, they are also used for deoxidization in the smelting of steel, which allows you to remove residual oxygen from the resulting material.

The product range of the aluminum group:

Aluminum ingots

AD1, AD31, (AD1, AD31)

AB86, AB 91, AB97 (AV86, AV91, AV97)

AK7, AK9, AK12 (AK7, AK9, AK12)

AK5M2, AK9M2, AK12M2 (AK5M2, AK9M2, AK12M2).

 

Lead

(Lat. Plumbum; denoted by the symbol Pb) – an element of the 14th group, the sixth period of the periodic table of chemical elements DI Mendeleev, with atomic number 82 and, thus, contains the magic number of protons. A simple substance lead is a malleable, relatively low-melting heavy metal of silver-white color with a bluish tint. Lead density – 11.35 g / cm³. Lead is toxic. Known since ancient times. Lead has been in use for many millennia, since it is widely distributed, easily mined and processed. It is very malleable and melts easily. Lead smelting was the first of the metallurgical processes known to man. Found Lead Beads, dating from 6400 BC. e. The largest producer of lead pre-industrial era was Ancient Rome, with an annual production of 80,000 tons. The Romans widely used lead in the production of pipes for water pipes, lead pipes often had inscriptions of Roman emperors.

Lead and lead alloys are produced according to:

GOST 3778-98 Lead. Specifications

GOST 1292-81 Lead-antimony alloys. Technical conditions

Lead product range:

Lead ingots

C0, C1C, C1, C2C, C2, C3C, C3, CCAA

 

Copper

(Cu from Lat. Cuprum) – an element of the eleventh group of the fourth period of the periodic table of chemical elements DI Mendeleev, with atomic number 29. Simple matter copper is a plastic transition metal of golden-pink color (pink color in the absence of an oxide film). It has long been widely used by man. Copper is one of the first metals to be well mastered by man due to the availability to obtain from ore and a low melting point. This metal is found in nature in the native form more often than gold, silver and iron. In ancient times, copper was also used in the form of an alloy with tin — bronze — for the manufacture of weapons, etc., the bronze age replaced the copper one. An alloy of copper and tin (bronze) was obtained for the first time in 3,000 years BC. e. in the middle east.

Copper and copper alloys are produced according to:

GOST 546-01 Copper cathodes. Specifications.

TSh 64-05755737-141 Copper wire. Specifications.

Ts 00193950-006: 2014 Copper pipe. Technical conditions.

Product range of the copper group:

Copper cathodes GOST 546-2001

Mark  M00k, Cu – 99.99%

Mark M0k , Cu – not less than 99.97%

Mark M1k, Cu – not less than 99.95%

Form and packaging:

Cathodes 820mm × 850mm × 10mm packed in steel tape tied packages

weighing up to 1.5 tons

Copper wire standard: TSh 64-05755737-141

Form and packaging:

The weight of the wire is not less than 40 kg.

Copper pipes standard: Ts 00193950-006: 2014

Brand: M1 (soft, hard)

Shape and package:

The mass of pipes in coils should be from 80 kg to 300 kg. Pipes in coils and bundles

Packed in plastic wrap and placed in wooden boxes on pallets

or in boxes of corrugated cardboard according to GOST 7376.

Copper pipes seamless cold deformed round section of the general

appointments are made in accordance with the requirements of Ts 00193950-006.

Mechanical properties of pipes must meet the following requirements:

 

Rated outdoor  diameter, mm Delivery form Condition of the material Temporary

Resistance Ϭv, MPa (kgf / mm2), not less

Relative

elongation δ5% not

less

From 3.0 to 19.0 inclusive In coves Soft 210 (21) 36
From 3.0 to 44.0 incl. In the segments Semisolid 240 (25) 11
From 3.0 to 44.0 incl. In the segments Solid 280 (29) 3

Bronze group (an alloy of copper and tin): Rods of the marks Br OTsS 5-5-5, Br OTsS 3-12-5

Brass group (an alloy of copper with zinc): Rods of grades LTS25S2, LOS, L63, L68, LS59-1.

Zinc

Zinc is a chemical element of a secondary subgroup of the second group, the fourth period of the periodic system of D.I. Mendeleev, with atomic number 30. It is denoted by the symbol Zn (lat. Zinc). A simple substance is zinc under normal conditions – a brittle bluish-white transition metal (tarnishes in air, being covered with a thin layer of zinc oxide). Zinc alloy with copper – brass – was already known in Ancient Greece, Ancient Egypt, India (VII century), China (XI century). Zinc is the fourth most used metal in the world after iron, aluminum and copper, and the third among non-ferrous metals.

Zinc and zinc alloys are produced according to:

GOST 3640-94 Zinc. Specifications

GOST 19424-97 Cast zinc alloys in pigs. Technical conditions

Zinc product range:

Pig zinc grades

Ts0A, Ts0, Ts0A, Ts1, Ts1S, Ts2, Ts2S, Ts3, Ts3S, TsV, TsV0, TsV00

TsA4, TsAM15, TsAM4-1, TsAM2-5, TsAM10-5, TsP1, TsP2, TsP3, TsAO, TsAO4

Form and packaging:

Pigs weighing about 25 kg packed in packages weighing no more than 1000 kg not high

more than 500 mm tied with steel tape.

 

Purpose

marks

No less Chemical composition,% of impurity, not more than
  Zn Pb Cd Fe Cu Sn As Total
Ц0А 99,98 0,01 0,003 0,003 0,001 0,001 0,0005 0,02
Ц0 99,975 0,013 0,004 0,005 0,001 0,001 0,0005 0,025

 Tin

 (Sn; lat. Stannum) – an element of the 14th group of the periodic system of chemical elements, the fifth period, with atomic number 50 [5]. It belongs to the group of light metals. Under normal conditions, a simple tin substance is a ductile, malleable and fusible shiny metal of silver-white color. Known modifications of tin: below α + 13.2 ° C, α-tin (gray tin) with a cubic diamond type lattice is stable, β-tin (white tin) with a tetragonal crystal lattice is stable above +13.2 ° C. Tin was known to man already in the IV millennium BC. e. This metal was inaccessible and expensive, so products from it are rarely found among the Roman and Greek antiquities. Tin is (along with copper) one of the components of tin bronze, invented at the end or middle of the 3rd millennium BC. e. Since bronze was the most durable of the metals and alloys known at that time, tin was a “strategic metal” during the entire “bronze age”. Tin polymorphic. Under normal conditions, it exists as a β-modification (white tin), stable above +13.2 ° C. White tin is a silvery-white, soft, ductile metal. When cooled, white tin turns into α-modification (gray tin). Gray tin forms crystals of cubic syngony. In gray tin, the β-Sn phase transition in α-Sn is accompanied by an increase in specific volume by 25.6%, which leads to the scattering of tin into powder.

“Tin plague” – one of the reasons for the death of Scott’s expedition to the South Pole in 1912. She was left without fuel due to the fact that fuel leaked from tin-sealed tanks hit by “tin plague.”

Some historians point to the “tin plague” as one of the reasons for the defeat of Napoleon’s army in Russia in 1812 – severe frosts led to the transformation of tin buttons on soldiers’ uniforms into powder.

The “tin plague” destroyed many collections of tin soldiers. For example, dozens of figures turned into dust in the storerooms of the St. Petersburg Museum of Alexander Suvorov – in the basement, where they were stored, the radiators burst in winter.

 

Tin and tin alloys are produced according to:

GOST 860-75 Tin. Specifications

GOST 57772-17 Tin and tin alloys. Specifications

TU 48-13-17-93 Tin wire. Technical conditions

 The range of products of the tin group:

Tin bars

VHF-000, O1 pch, O1, O2, O3, O4

Form and packaging:

Pigs weighing about 25 kg packed in packages weighing no more than 1000 kg not high

more than 500 mm tied with steel tape.

  

Маrk Sn, no more As, no more Fe, no more Cu, no more Pb, no more Bi, no more Sb, no more S, no more
ОВЧ-000 99,999 1E-04 0,0001 0,00001 0,00001 0,000005 0,00005
О1 пч 99,915 0,01 0,009 0,01 0,025 0,01 0,015 0,008
О1 99,9 0,01 0,009 0,01 0,04 0,015 0,015 0,007
О2 99,565 0,015 0,02 0,03 0,25 0,05 0,05 0,016
О3 98,49 0,03 0,02 0,1 1 0,06 0,3 0,02
О4 96,43 0,05 0,02 0,1 3 0,1 0,3 0,02

Wire from 0.5 mm to 8 mm; Bar from 8 mm to 15 mm;

Form and packaging:

Bar length 400 ± 20 mm. Tin bar is supplied in packs of 10-15 kg.

 

Nominal diameter, mm 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.5 1.8 2.0 3.0 5.0
Maximum deviation, mm (±) 0.05 0.05 0,05 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.15

 

Steel sheet and rolled

Steel (from it. Stahl) – an alloy of iron with carbon (and other elements), containing not less than 45% iron, and in which the carbon content is in the range from 0.02 to 2.14%, and the content from 0.6% up to 2.14% corresponds to high carbon steel. If the carbon content in the alloy exceeds 2.14%, then this alloy is called cast iron. Carbon gives alloys strength and hardness, reducing ductility and toughness.

Steel with high elastic properties are widely used in machine building and instrument making. In mechanical engineering, they are used for the manufacture of springs, shock absorbers, power springs for various purposes, in instrument engineering – for numerous elastic elements: membranes, springs, relay plates, bellows, extensions, suspensions.

The earliest known steel samples were discovered during excavations in Anatolia (Turkey). They are about 3800 years old, they date back to 1800 BC. Indian steel enjoyed a high reputation in ancient times. Medieval bulat, widely known in Central Asia and Eastern Europe, originated from Indian steel. Steel learned to produce at the end of the era of Antiquity and in Western Europe. In the Middle Ages, steel was widely used for making knives (Romanesque sword, Ulfbert’s Swords). Damascus steel from which Shamshir was forged was known in the Middle East. In medieval Japan, famous katanas, wakizashis, and tantos were made from steel — Tamahagane. There is a version that Japanese swords of the XI-XIII centuries were made of alloy steel with an admixture of molybdenum. In Europe, steel allowed to lengthen swords, which later evolved into a sword (in the XV century) and a rapier.

The technology of cast steel is invented by the English engineer Gentsman, but it penetrates into continental Europe only at the beginning of the 19th century (thanks to Krupp). Since 1854 rifled artillery was made of steel (Armstrong Cannon). In the XX century steel began to make tank armor.

   Types of steel:

There are many ways to classify steel, by purpose, by chemical composition, by quality, by structure.

 By designation, steels are divided into many categories, such as structural steels, corrosion-resistant (stainless) steels, tool steels, heat-resistant steels, and cryogenic steels.

Chemical composition of steel is divided into carbon and alloyed; including carbon content – low carbon (up to 0.25% C), medium carbon (0.25–0.6% C) and high carbon (0.6–2% C); According to the content of alloying elements, alloyed steel is divided into low-alloyed – up to 4% of alloying elements, medium-alloyed – up to 11% of alloying elements and high-alloyed – over 11% of alloying elements.

By quality they began to be divided into: ordinary quality, high-quality, high-quality and especially high-quality, since they became, depending on the method of their preparation, contain a different number of non-metallic inclusions. The essence of the process of iron processing for steel is to reduce to the desired concentration of carbon and harmful impurities – phosphorus and sulfur, which make the steel brittle and brittle. Depending on the method of carbon oxidation, there are various ways of processing iron to steel: converter, open-hearth and electrothermal.

The structure of the steel is divided into austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, bainitic and pearlitic. If the structure is dominated by two or more phases, the steel is divided into two-phase and multi-phase.

Steel is subject to mandatory labeling. To clarify information on a specific steel grade, so-called marochnik can be used.

Alloyed steels, in contrast to unalloyed, have a slightly different designation, since they contain elements that are specially introduced in certain quantities to provide the required physical or mechanical properties.

For example:

  • chromium (Cr) increases hardness and strength.
  • Nickel (Ni) provides corrosion resistance and increases hardenability.
  • Cobalt (Co) increases heat resistance and increases impact resistance.
  • Niobium (Nb) helps to improve acid resistance and reduces corrosion in welded structures.

Deciphering steel grades requires knowing what letters are used to designate certain chemical elements that make up the grade or alloy.

If at the very end of the mark is the letter A, this is how high-grade steel is indicated, the content of phosphorus and sulfur in which is minimized (S <0.03% and P <0.03%) and all conditions of high-quality metallurgical production are met. Two letters A at the very end (AA) indicate that this steel grade is extremely pure, that is, there is practically no sulfur and phosphorus in it. The letter symbols “kp”, “ps”, “cn” are used to indicate the degree of deoxidation of steel:

  • “kp” – boiling
  • “ps” – semi-calm
  • “cn” – calm

Characteristics of steel

  • Density: 7700–7900 kg / m³ (7.7 to 7.9 g / cm³).
  • Specific weight: 75500-77500 N / m³ (7700-7900 kgf / m³ in the MKGSS system).
  • Specific heat capacity at 20 ° C: 462 J / (kg • ° C) (110 cal / (kg • ° C)).
  • Melting point: 1450–1520 ° C.
  • Specific heat of fusion: 84 kJ / kg (20 kcal / kg, 23 Wh / kg).
  • coefficient of thermal conductivity at a temperature of 100 ° C

Steel sheet and rolled steel are produced according to:

GOST 380-05 Carbon steel of ordinary quality. Stamps.

GOST 16523-97 Rolled thin-sheet carbon steel of high quality and ordinary quality for general use. Technical conditions.

GOST 19903-74 Hot rolled sheet metal. Range.

The steel product range includes various steel grades:

Hot rolledcoils

The inner diameter of the coil is 850 ± 50 mm, dimensions 1.2–12.0 x 800–1524 mm, in rolls of a mass of 10-23 tons.

The inner diameter of the lightweight roll is 600 ± 50 mm, dimensions are 1.2-4 x 100-1300 mm, in rolls with a mass of 5-8 tons, the hem is cut.

Specific dimensions are agreed upon checkout.

Hot-rolled sheets

Sizes 1,2-12,0 x 800-1524 x 2000-6000 mm

Specific dimensions are agreed upon checkout.

Cold-rolled coils

The inner diameter of the roll for thicknesses of 0.47 mm and more is 600 ± 10 mm, weight is 4-8 tons. The internal diameter of the roll for thicknesses of 0.6 mm and less is 508 ± 10 mm, weight 2-4 tons. Specific dimensions are agreed upon checkout.

Cold rolled sheet

Dimensions 1.2-12.0 x 800-1524 x 2000-6000 mm

Specific dimensions are agreed upon checkout.

Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid H2SO4 is a strong dibasic acid, corresponding to the highest degree of sulfur oxidation. Under normal conditions, anhydrous concentrated sulfuric acid is a heavy oily liquid without color and smell, with a strongly acidic “copper” taste, the density at a temperature of 20 ° C is equal to 1.8305 g / m3. In the technique of sulfuric acid is called a mixture of both water and sulfuric anhydride.

Sulfuric acid has been known since antiquity, being found in nature in a free form, for example, in the form of lakes near volcanoes.

In the 18th — 19th centuries, sulfur for gunpowder was produced from pyrite (pyrite) in sulphate plants. Sulfuric acid at the time was called “oil of vitriol”.

The smallest droplets of sulfuric acid can form in the middle and upper layers of the atmosphere as a result of the reaction of water vapor and volcanic ash containing large amounts of sulfur. The resulting suspension, due to the high reflectivity of sulfuric acid clouds, makes it difficult for sunlight to reach the surface of the planet. Therefore (and also as a result of a large number of the smallest particles of volcanic ash in the upper layers of the atmosphere, which also impede access to sunlight for the planet), after particularly strong volcanic eruptions, significant changes in climate can occur. For example, as a result of the eruption of the Ksudach volcano (Kamchatka Peninsula, 1907), an increased concentration of dust in the atmosphere lasted for about 2 years, and characteristic silvery clouds of sulfuric acid were observed even in Paris. The explosion of the Pinatubo volcano in 1991, which sent 30 million tons of sulfur into the atmosphere, caused 1992 and 1993 to be much colder than 1991 and 1994.

Sulfuric acid is used:

– in the processing of ores, especially in the extraction of rare elements,

– in the production of mineral fertilizers,

– as an electrolyte in lead accumulators,

– for the production of various mineral acids and salts,

– in the production of chemical fibers, dyes, smoke and explosives,

– in the oil, metalworking, textile, leather and other industries,

– in the food industry

– registered as a food additive E513 (emulsifier),

– in industrial organic synthesis, sulfonation (detergents and intermediate products in the production of dyes), alkylation (production of isooctane, polyethylene glycol, caprolactam), etc.

Sulfuric acid produced by:

GOST 2184 – 77 Technical sulfuric acid. Technical conditions.

mark “Improved”, mark “Technical”.

Form and packaging:

Sulfuric acid is shipped in special railway tanks or through a piping system.

When shipping sulfuric acid in tanks or containers, no more than 10 tanks or containers are accepted as a batch, and for contact improved acid and improved oleum – no more than one tank or one container. The lot size when shipping products in barrels is not more than 20 tons.

Technical sulfuric acid is produced in accordance with the requirements of GOST 2184 marks: improved and

technical (grade 1 and grade 2).

Name of the indicator Standard
Improved Technical
1 mark 2 mark
Mass fraction of monohydrate,% 92,5-94,0 No less 92,5
Mass fraction of iron (Fe),% not more than 0,006 0,02 0,11
Mass fraction of the residue after 0,02 0,05 Not standardized
calcination,% not more 0,00005 Not standardized
Mass fraction of nitrogen oxides (N2O3),% not 0,00008 Not standardized
More 0,001 Not standardized
Mass fraction of arsenic (As),% not more than 0,0001 Not standardized
Mass fraction of lead (Pb),% not more than 1 6
Mass fraction of chloride compounds (Cl), transparent without

dilution

Not standardized